History

PRESBYTERIAN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION:

THE MOTHER OF OUR SCHOOLS

1.1 Brief History of the College

HISTORY OF PRESBYTERIAN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

Presbyterian College of Education located in Akropong Akuapem, formerly known as Presbyterian Training College was established on 3rd July 1848 by the Basel Missionaries who had then established the Presbyterian Church in 1828. It is the first and oldest higher institution of learning in Ghana and second to Foura Bay College in Sierra Leone, in West Africa. It is therefore known as the ‘Mother of our Schools’. For about fifty years it remained the only higher institution of learning in Ghana (Gold Coast).

PHASES GONE THROUGH

The Presbyterian College of Education began mainly as a Seminary (Akropong Seminary) with the core mandate to equip teachers with sound basic education and sound attitudes necessary for living exemplary lives. Strict discipline was key to their training and this reflected in their lifestyles.

The name Akropong Seminary was similar to the Seminary Institute in Basel, Switzerland which was also started in July, 1816. Both institutions were founded by the Basel Evangelical Society, for the training of men to become teachers and preachers of the Gospel among heathens in different lands.

The Basel Evangelical Society ( Evanglisches Missions Gesellschaft, Basel) which was set up in 1815 had certain unique characteristic features embodied in its constitution:

  1. The living factor that moved all the members was pietism – the doctrine which insists that faith is not merely an intellectual grasp of the pure and true teachings of the Word, but transformation of life based on those teachings and effected through conscious spiritual exercise.
  2. Much importance was attached to the influence of the personality of the men at the helm of affairs rather than to the avowed purity of the doctrines they held.
  3. It was not a product of a Church like the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary and the Church Missionary Societies which sprang from established churches (Methodist and Anglican respectively). Yet like these societies, it had its antecedent: the Basel Missionary Society sprang directly from the spirit of pietism advocated by Spener and Francke nearly a hundred years before.

The achievement of the Basel Mission Society was made possible by the efforts of the missionaries in two directions at the beginning of the period 1843-50. The first was the careful selection of the Africans whom Widmann and his colleagues admitted into the seminary at Akropong on July3, 1848 and at Osu where another one was opened in 1850 which, in 1855 was transferred to, and merged with the one at Akropong ( KristofoSenkekafo, August 1915). The second was the mastery of the Twi and Ga languages which the missionaries, in time, reduced into writing and used as the medium for the spread of the Word of God and of formal education.

You are not going to make the error of writing something in your essay that you believe you have thought paper writing service of yourself, but is actually something you’re remembering from a book word-for-word.

In 1850, at a meeting of the European missionaries at Akropong, a decision was taken which laid down the following rules for selecting candidates for admission into the Teachers’ Seminary: Firstly, no one should be admitted if he has not been baptised. Secondly, those who have received baptism on the pillow (or who want to be trained teachers but did not want to be trained to preach); this College is not for such. They only give trouble to the Church afterwards as they have no interest in the Church.

Later, the Seminary became a separate entity and the Training College main mandate to train teachers continued. In 2006, all Training Colleges in the country were promoted to tertiary status to run Diploma in Basic Education Programmes.

COURSES

Reference to training to preach as one of the courses pursued by the men taken into the Teachers’ Seminary lead us to take a look at the curriculum in the early years of the institution. Since the lower levels of education were not adequately developed and also fewer years were spent in the acquisition of the basic knowledge of reading, writing and working with numbers, the students of the first decade and half (1848 to c. 1863) had to spend the  first three years in the Seminary in further work in:

  1. Reading lessons in the English Bible and in the Twi language
  2. Translation exercises from English into Twi
  3. The study of English grammar
  4. Spelling lessons (both English and Twi)
  5. Calligraphy (the art of beautiful handwriting)
  6. Arithmetic
  7. Geography
  8. Hymn singing.

Then they proceeded to learn Exercises and World and Church History. In 1863 when courses in theology were started, other subjects such as Greek, Hebrew, Dogmatics, Homiletics (the art of preaching), etc were taught. As part of the training in the last named subjects, the students accompanied the European missionaries on their preaching tour in the town around Akropong; and occasionally did the preaching too. But most of the time they were translators of the sermons from the English language into Twi. Later, gardening, blacksmithing and wood work (carpentry and joinery) were added.

In the early years and well up to 1863, the duration of the course was not clearly defined. The first batch of five which entered the Seminary on July 3, 1848 completed their course on April 27, 1853 (Kristofo Senkekafo, Sept., 1815). Meanwhile, on May 14, 1852, admission was offered to four young men. Of these, three were West Indian descendants – Isaac Osterlag, Robert Miller, and Andrew Hall, an elder brother of the first Moderator, Peter Hall (1918-23) of the Mission Church. Unfortunately, Andrew died in 1859. The fourth was  Philip Kwabi, a lad from Akropong.

These were followed on September 19, 1853 by a third batch of five – John Asare, George Hanson, Adolf Burkhardt, Christian Asante and Joseph Ofei. These two batches were sent out together at the end of August, 1858. Among them was a very remarkable man, Edward Samson, from Aburi. He was a practically a self-made evangelist, for he had little opportunity to receive the kind of regular, formal education that his colleagues had, both at school and at the college level.

Admission offered to a new set of students on the same day (August 31, 1858) that the second and third batches were sent to the Lord’s vineyard may be mentioned for some interesting reasons. Firstly, it was the largest class so far – in all twenty-two men. Secondary, it took cognisance of the two ethnic communities – Akan (Twi) and Ga-Adangme – amongst whom the Mission had been operating since 1843. There were eleven each of Twi and Ga-speaking students. Thirdly, we are told of Theophilus Opoku, (Kristofo Senkekafo, May 1916), one of the entrants, that the course lasted four years. The experiment must have been successful because after 1863 the four-year course became normal.

The College started with five male students in 1848. Until 1958, the College remained a male Institution. In 1958 the last white Principal of the College Rev. Noel Smith admitted 17 women into the College. Some other interesting historical facts concerning the College are as follows:

  1. One of the pioneers of P.T.C was a Jamaican
  2. P.T.C produced a President for Ghana – His Excellency E. Akuffo Addo, the President of the 2nd Republic was a product of P.T.C
  3. Moderators of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana from 1918 to 1994 all attended P.T.C
  4. Nana Sir Ofori Atta I, a member of the Gold Coast Legislative Council attended P.T.C
  5. The first speaker of Ghana’s Parliament, Sir Emmanuel Quist, was a student of P.T.C
  6. St. Andrews College and Komenda Training College were nursed at P.T.C. before they were relocated at their present sites.
  7. Dr. Ephraim Amu was once a Tutor in the College; he was dismissed for preaching with a traditional cloth in the chapel.
  8. P.T.C has also produced traditional rulers like Nana Kwesi Akufo I, Nana Sir Ofori Atta I and Nana Boache Tromo III, who were or are still Paramount Chiefs of their areas.

Currently, the College offers General programme, Science and Mathematics and Technical Programmes.

The College now has a Tertiary status and is fully accredited with Accreditation Certificate number NAB/ 1Ac/ No.0000639. The college is affiliated to the University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast. The Affiliation is for five (5) years.

Special Attainment

The first products of the college were responsible for the expansion of basic schools. The products of these basic schools also became products of the secondary schools established. The College also provide staff college of the Gold Coast when it was established in 1948.

Presbyterian College of Education has also contributed to the development of Ghanaian Languages, Religion, Sports etc, hence earning the accolade ‘The Mother of our Schools’

The college was the first to start the training of visually impaired students in 1945 by the then Principal Mr. Doughlas Benzies. Currently the College also trains hearing impaired students. It is therefore the only College of Education which trains both visually and hearing impaired students.

The missionaries who establish the college were the first to introduce the cocoa crop into the country far before Tetteh Quarshie brought some from Fernando Po. However it was on a small plantation. This still exist on the campus. Tetteh Quarshie commercialised cocoa in the country.

Roll of Current Governing Council Members

S/N

NAME

POSITION

1.

Dr. Esther Ofei-Aboagye

Chairperson (PCG)

2.

Rev. Samuel YeboahAntwi

Principal

3.

Mr. Epton Joseph Koranteng-Addo

UCC Representative

4.

Rev. Dr. A. N. O. Kwakye

Alumni Representative

5.

Mrs. Sylvia Asempa

NCTE Representative

6.

Mr. Maxwell Gyampoh Larbi

NTC Representative

7.

Hon. Alex Asamoah

Government Nominated Rep.

8.

Mrs. Rosephillo Adomah

Government Nominated Rep.

9.

Ms. Auswell Amfo-Antiri

Govt. Nominated Rep.

10.

Mr. Ben B. Cronze

GES Representative

11.

Bright NyarkoAntwi

Students’ Body Rep.

12.

Rev. William Brentuo

Teaching Staff Rep.

13.

Mr. Isaac Frempong

Non-Teaching Staff Rep.

14.

Rev. Charles Fosu-Ayarkwah

Vice-Principal (Ex-Officio)

15.

Mr. William Adjei-Twumasi

Finance Officer (Ex-Officio)

16.

Mr. Christian Odoi-Ayisi

College Secretary          

(Ex-Officio)                        

17.

Rev. Dr. G. O. Kwapong

Akuapem Presbytery   

(Co-opted member)

18.

Dr. Samuel Manteaw (Lawyer)

Co-opted member

 

 

ROLL OF PRINCIPALS

  1. Rev. Johann Christian Dieterle           –           1st Principal (1848 – 1851)
  2. Rev. Johann Georg Widmann             –           2nd Principal (1852 – 1867)
  3. Rev. Johann Adam Mader                  –           3rd Principal (1868 – 1877)
  4. Rev. Johannes Mueller                        –           4th Principal (1878 – 1888)
  5. Rev. David Eisenschmidt                   –           5th Principal (1889 – 1890)
  6. Rev. Bahasar Groh                              –           6th Principal (1891 – 1905)
  7. Rev. Wilhelm JakobRottmann           –           7th Principal (1906 – 1909)
  8. Rev. Immanuel Bellon                        –           8th Principal (1909 – 1911)
  9. Rev. Dr. Gustav Jehle                         –           9th Principal (1912 –1917)
  10. Rev. William G. Murray                     –           10th Principal (1920 – 1926)
  11. Rev. William Ferguson                       –           11th Principal (1926 – 1937)
  12. Mr. Douglas Benzies                          –           12th Principal (1937 – 1947)
  13. Rev. John Strachan Malloch               –           13th Principal (1949 – 1957)
  14. Rev. Dr. Joseph Noel Smith               –                       14th Principal (1958 – 1962)
  15. Rev. Erasmus AwukuAsamoa            –                       15th Principal (1963 – 1965)
  16. Rev. Henry Theodore Dako                –                       16th Principal (1965 – 1971)
  17. Rev. Lawrence Samuel GyangAgyemfra       –           17th Principal (1971 – 1973)
  18. Rev. Samuel Kwame Aboa                –                       18th Principal (1973 – 1978)
  19. Rev. Samuel AddaiOfosuhene           –                       19th Principal (1979 – 1987)
  20. Mr. OforiBoahene                              –                       20th Principal (1987 – 1993)
  21. Rev. K. AgyinBirikorang                    –                       21st Principal (1994 – 1996)
  22. Rev. S. K. Mensah                              –                       22nd Principal (1997 – 1999)
  23. Mr. E. K. Osei                                     –                       23rd Principal (1999 – 2011)
  24. Rev. Samuel YeboahAntwi                –                       24th Principal ( 2011 – Date)

           

PHOTOGRAPH OF CURRENT PRINCIPAL

 

 

Rev. Samuel YeboahAntwi

STATISTICS: CURRENT ENROLLMENT BY LEVELS AND GENDER

Current enrolment by Levels and Gender specification as at 04/11/2016:

FIRST YEAR:

GENDER

NUMBER OF STUDENTS

Male

311

Female

262

TOTAL

573

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECOND YEAR:

GENDER

NUMBER OF STUDENTS

Male

305

Female

185

TOTAL

490

 

THIRD YEAR:

GENDER

NUMBER OF STUDENTS

Male

319

Female

201

TOTAL

520

 

GRAND TOTAL:

LEVEL

NUMBER OF STUDENTS

LEVEL 100

573

LEVEL 200

490

LEVEL 300

520

GRAND TOTAL

1583

 

 

TEACHING STAFF

S/NO.

     NAME 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VOCTECH

 

 

 

 

1.

TETEY-KWAME SAMUEL

M’TECH-MECHANICAL

 

 

 

 

2.

FIRMIN ANEWUOH

M’TECH-CONSTRUCTION

 

 

 

 

3.

KENNEDY APPAIDU-BOAKYE

M’TECH-CONSTRUCTION

 

 

 

 

4.

JOYCE KUMBEA TETEY – (H.O.D)

M.PHIL – HOME ECONOMICS

 

 

 

 

 

 

LANGUAGE

1.

VIVIENNE OCRAN – (H.O.D)

M’PHIL – ENGLISH LANG.

 

 

 

 

2.

ELIA ASAH

B.ED- ENGLISH & FRENCH

 

 

 

 

3.

CHARLES ARTHUR

M’PHIL – BASIC EDUCATION

 

 

 

 

4.

THELMA ARTHUR

M’PHIL – ENGLISH LANG.

 

 

 

 

5.

ANITA BRAKO YEBOAH

M.A – TESEL

 

 

 

 

6.

AMOAH RAPHAEL

M.A -THEOLOGY & MISSION,  MPHIL GHANAIAN LANGUAGE (ON-GOING)

 

 

 

 

7.

VIDA ASORH OWUSU

M.A – TESEL

 

 

 

 

8.

COMFORT OFOLEY ANANG

M’PHIL – GHANAIAN LANG.

 

 

 

 

9.

DJORBUA CHARLES

M. A – TESEL

 

 

 

 

10.

GEORGINA MONNEY

M’PHIL – ENGLISH LANG.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CREATIVE ARTS

1.

VIDA APRAKU – (H.O.D)

B.ED (ART) / B.ED HOME ECONOMICS

 

 

 

 

2.

LIFESON BENJAMIN SEMENYO

B.ED – ART

 

 

 

 

3.

GEORGE SAM

M’PHIL MUSIC

 

 

 

 

 

 

EDUCATION

1.

BRIGHT BREW – (H.O.D)

M’PHIL-  SPECIAL EDUC.

 

 

 

 

2.

ROSE OFFEI

M.ED – SPECIAL EDUC.

 

 

 

 

3.

SAMPSON SENAM GBEDEMAH

M’PHIL – SPECIAL EDUC.

 

 

 

 

4.

ROBERT KWAME ADIEGAH

M.ED EDUCATIONAL MGT

 

 

 

 

5.

OHENE KOFI KUNTOH

M.ED – SPECIAL EDUC.

 

 

 

 

6.

EVELYN SUSUANA A. ANGLOW

M’PHIL – SPECIAL EDUC.

 

 

 

 

7.

PHYLLIS KWARTENG GOMADO

M.ED – GUIDANCE COUNSELLING

 

 

 

 

8.

EUNICE BAMFO

M.ED GUIDANCE &COUNSELING

 

 

 

 

9.

OSEI YEBOAH

B.ED SPECIAL EDUCATION

 

 

 

 

10.

AARON ATO DAVIES

M.ED –

 

 

 

 

11.

EDWARD KISSI

M.ED –  SPECIAL EDUC.

 

 

 

 

 

SCIENCES

1.

SASU MENSAH GEORGE

M’PHIL – AGRIC SCIENCE

 

 

 

 

2.

OHENE GEORGE

B.Sc. – SCIENCE

 

 

 

 

3.

APPAH BUERNORTEY GEORGE

M’PHIL – CROP SCIENCE

 

 

 

 

4.

AHWA ISAAC

M’PHIL – SCIENCE

 

 

 

 

5.

HENEWA REGINA

M’PHIL – SCIENCE

 

 

 

 

6.

OWUSU EMMANUEL

M.PHIL ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

 

 

 

 

7.

KOFI MENSAH

M’PHIL – ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

 

 

 

 

8.

ESHUN EMMANUEL

M’PHIL – SCIENCE EDUCATION

 

 

 

 

9.

FIANOO GEORGINA

M.ED – SCIENCE EDUCATION

 

 

 

 

10.

MARTHA AGYIRI

M’PHIL – POST HARVEST TECH.

 

 

 

 

11.

SEDEGAH SAMUEL

M’PHIL – SCIENCE

 

 

 

 

12.

KWAPONG DARKWAH SAMUEL

MSc. – INDUSTRIAL MATHS

 

 

 

 

13.

ROSINA OHENE-ADDO

M’PHIL – PHYSICAL EDUC.

 

 

 

 

 

SOCIAL SCIENCES

1.

ABAYAH VICTOR KWABLA

B.ED – RELIGION

 

 

 

 

2.

GEORGINA FIONA AGYEIBEA

M.ED GUIDANCE&COUNSELLING

 

 

 

 

3.

ROSEMARY OSEI

B.ED – SOCIAL STUDIES

 

 

 

 

4.

EMMANUEL LARBI APPAW

M’PHIL SCIENCE

 

 

 

 

5.

PATRICK KOFI ANTWI

M’PHIL – SOCIAL STUDIES

 

 

 

 

 

MATHS AND ICT

1.

SAKYI LARBI LAWRENCE

M’PHIL – MATHEMATICS

 

 

 

 

2.

ASARE FRANCIS MARTEY

M’PHIL – MATHEMATICS

 

 

 

 

3.

BOAKYE KENNETH

B.ED – MATHEMATICS

 

 

 

 

4.

AGBOZO KORSI KENNETH

M’PHIL – MATHEMATICS

 

 

 

 

5.

WIAFE DANIEL ASOMANI

M.SCI. – INDUSTRIAL MATHS

 

 

 

 

6.

ZUTAAH PUOTIER

M’PHIL  – MATHEMATICS

 

 

 

 

7.

AMEGAYIE DIVINE

M’PHIL –  MATHEMATICS

 

 

 

 

8.

REV. WILLIAM AGYEI BRANTUO

M’DIV – THEOLOGY

 

 

 

 

9.

ANSONG EMMANUEL

M’PHIL – MATHEMATICS

 

 

 

 

10.

ADI NYARKO SAMPSON

B.ED – MATHEMATICS

 

 

 

 

11.

RICHARD AMANKWAH

 PhD in ICT (on going)

M’PHIL – ICT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ADMINISTRATION

1.

PRINCIPAL   – REV. SAMUEL YEBOAH ANTWI

M.A – MISSION & THEOLOGY, PhD(EDUCATION) – On-going

 

 

 

 

2.

VICE PRIN. – REV. CHARLES FOSU-AYARKWA

M’PHIL GUIDANCE & COUNSELLING

 

 

 

 

3.

SECRETARY – ODOI AYISI-CHRISTIAN

M’ED – EDUC., ADM.

 

 

 

 

                   

 

 

 

NON-TEACHING STAFF

NAME OF OFFICER

QUALIFICATION

POSITION

ADJEI TWUMASI WILLIAM

E.M.B.A/PGDA

Deputy Chief Accountant

amponsah dadzie

bba acct/finance

Principal Accountant

AVORTRIE MARTHA VALENTINA

B.S ACCT

Accountant

Augustina mate-kodjo

gce o’level

Snr. Adm.Officer

nkrumah vincentia

gov. sec. cert

Principal Typist

roscka owusua ofosu

HND

Stenographer GD II

class: supply

 

 

frempong isaac

b.com

Principal Supply Officer

boahene ebenezer

hnd purch. supply

Principal supply officer

oppong michael

m.s.l.c

Snr. Driver

atiemo kwaku joseph

m.s.l.c

Driver GD II

ohene kwame enoch

bece

Driver GD II

MARGARET YEBO

CITY & GUILD

Principal Domestic Bursar

dogbe ruby

nvti GD.1 & II

Matron

ALICE KONYO

NVTI GD.I

Matron

akuffo lydia

nvti GD.i

Chief Cook

ako patricia

M.S.L.C

Chief Cook

AGYAPOMAA MONICA

M.S.L.C

Chief Cook

BAMPOE GLADYS

m.s.l.c

Chief Cook

kwapong augustina

m.s.l.c

Chief Cook

korkor felicia

m.s.l.c

Chief Cook

birikorang adelaide

m.s.l.c

Cook

larbi helena

m.s.l.c

Cook

asabea christiana

bece

Asst. Cook

asabea victoria

nil

Cook

 

fianko joyce

m.s.l.c

Cook

 

brafo mary

bece

Asst. cook

 

ofori bismark

m.s.l.c

Chief Pantry

 

aduenika michael

nil

Head Pantry

 

kumi martin

mslc

Head Pantry

 

koranteng samuel

nil

Chief Foreman

 

KWADWO EBENEZER

nIL

Pantry hand

 

TETE YAW BENJANMIN

MSLC

H. Pantry hand

 

duose evans

nvti GD.i & ii

Supv. Tradesman

 

darko yaw abraham

nvti gd.i

Tradesman Grade I

 

kwasi kwapong

nil

Chief Headman

 

bampoe kwasi

nil

Snr. Labourer

 

asante george

mslc

Field Supervisor

 

yaw krah

mslc

Head Pantry hand

 

agyei enoch

bece

Snr. Labourer

 

appeletey joseph asare

wassce

Snr. Labourer

 

addo hammond francis

NVTI GD.1

G. labourer

 

anaa builsa

nil

Snr. Watchman

 

asebey kojo

nil

Watchman

 

ataaba peter

nil

Watchman

 

AWUNIBISI NOAH

MSLC

Snr. Watchman

 

AYOUNG DOMINIC

BECE

Night Watchman

 

KUMAYA MOSES

NIL

Night Watchman

 

CLASS: CONSERVANCY

 

 

 

KYELSAA CHARLES

BECE

Watchman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PICTURES OF IMPOSING STRUCTURES

The Castle Block Built In 1928

The Centenary Chapel

The Assembly Hall

The New 16 Apartment Staff Flats

The Administration Block

Uncompleted Structure of the New Administration Complex

 

Science Laboratory

 

PLANS FOR IMMEDIATE / FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

  1. Provide More Facilities to Enhance Teaching and Learning and Support Services
  • Provide state of the art facilities for the science and technical department
  • Complete all ongoing infrastructural projects, i.e administration complex and flats for staff.
  • Provide relevant, modern and adequate TLMs for all departments
  • Improve the water supply system in the college.

 

  1. Institute Measures to Enhance the Welfare of the of the College Community
  • Improve staff welfare scheme and incentives
  • Improve facilities for sporting activities
  •  Establishment of cafeteria for the college community

 

  1. Promote Quality and Excellence to affirm PCE’s position as the Premier College of Education.
  • Regular in-service training for staff
  • Encourage staff to undertake research
  • Strengthen the quality assurance unit
  • Forster access to on-line libraries
  • Provide the library with latest books on teacher education and other relevant areas
  • Set up an automated library management system

 

  1. Promote Equity and Diversity in line with the College Values of Inclusiveness
  • Make college facilities disability friendly
  • Provide the equipment to foster the training with special needs
  • Institute affirmative action measures to enhance the enrolment of students with special needs.

 

  1. Institute Measure to Enhance Investments and Fund Raising
  • Invest in various farming ventures
  • Raise funds from alumni, partners and NGOs
  • Organise fund raising events
  • Seek assistance from Presbyterian educational fund
  • Seek the support of districts and regional authorities

 

  1. Promote Collaborative Linkages among Core Stakeholders
  • Work with stake holders i.e. NCTE, NAB, GES, MOE, UCC, PRINCOF
  • Promote linkages with other tertiary institutions both in Ghana and abroad
  • Promote linkages with alumni
  • Enhance relationship with PCG.

 

  1. Institute Measures to enhance Marketing and Communication with Stakeholders
  • Improve upon the development of the college’s website
  • Develop memorabilia for distribution to stakeholders.
  • Establish a college newsletter to promote communication among the college community and alumni
  • Place billboards at vantage points

 

Vision

As the mother of all schools, we are committed to be the premier institution for holistic quality teacher education.

About Us

Presbyterian College of Education located in Akropong Akuapem, formerly known as Presbyterian Training College was established on 3rd July 1848 by the Basel Missionaries who had then established the Presbyterian Church in 1828. It is the first and oldest higher institution of learning in Ghana and second to Foura Bay College in Sierra Leone, in West Africa. It is therefore known as the ‘Mother of our Schools

Contact Details

PTC College,
P.O Box 27,
Akropong Akuapem,
Ghana, West Afrca.

Email: info@ptc.edu.gh
Tel: +233 (0) 503491837

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